With the continuous improvement of the level of intelligent transportation card technology around the world and the rapid development of people's demand for convenient payment, the importance of transportation cards in daily travel has been increasing. As the most populous region in the world, Asia has a demand for intelligent transportation. Zeng, the number and scale of distribution of transportation cards in China, South Korea, Thailand, Japan and other countries have gradually expanded. Among them, Japan's transportation card development level, business model, card issuance and grasp of future development trends are all in the world's leading level. Therefore, this paper attempts to analyze the specific business model of Japan's transportation card, and the diversification formed by Japan in the process of urban transportation development. The main structure of the business, the diversified business strategy of the Japanese rail transit private iron enterprises and the multi-channel promotion strategy, and the suica card as a case for a more detailed analysis, trying to provide useful enlightenment for the development of transportation cards in large cities in China.
1. Current status of Japan's transportation card development
Japanese electronic money cards are divided into various types, including prepaid cards and postpaid cards, which mainly serve the public transportation sector and business consumption. Among them, there are 10 prepaid card types for service in the field of transportation [11-13], namely Suica issued by JR East Japan, PASMO issued by Tokyo Metro, Kitaca issued by JR Hokkaido, ICOCA issued by JR West Japan, JR TOICA issued by Tokai, SUCOOA issued by JR Kyushu, Nimoca issued by Nishi Nippon Railway, HAYAKAKEN issued by Fukuoka Transportation Bureau, and PiTaPa issued by Kansai Regional Association.
In the spring of 2013, the traffic IC cards issued by 142 operators of the national railway and public transportation system in Japan were compatible with each other. Among the compatible services, there are JR East Japan's Suica, JR Tokai's TOICA, JR West Japan's ICOCA, and JR Kyushu. SUGOCA and the PASMO of the Tokyo Private Railway Company have 10 kinds of IC cards that pass through the major cities of Japan and 81. The above-mentioned transportation card can be used at half of the 4275 stations in Japan, from Hokkaido to Kyushu in the south, and the transportation fees of 52 railway companies and 96 bus companies are paid.
2. Japan Transportation Card Issuer
JR (Japan Railways) is a large railway group in Japan. Its predecessor was the Japanese state-owned railway. The Japanese state-owned railways, which were originally state-owned enterprises, have been operating in deficits due to poor management and years of accumulation. The trillion yen has caused the Japanese government to split, corporatize and privatize the national railway to improve its business. In 1987, the state-owned railway was divided into seven companies, including six railway passenger transport companies and one railway freight company. The companies that are separated from each other are collectively referred to as "JR." JR companies have no affiliation and will also be called JR Group. JR East Japan, JR Tokai and JR West Japan have gradually become listed after they have achieved the goal of privatization. In addition to the fact that freight companies are still operating nationwide, each passenger transport company has a fixed jurisdictional scope, and maintains a competitive and cooperative relationship with each other. Each company uses a uniform JR as a logo, but uses different representatives. Color as a brand difference. In addition to the general railway line and the Shinkansen, the JR companies also operate general buses, express buses and other ancillary businesses. In addition, there are also the "Industrial Railway Research Institute" and the "Train Information System", which are jointly funded by the companies. Club" [9-15].
Table 2-1 JR Seven Companies and Service Areas
The various major transportation cards that are used throughout Japan are issued by different entities of the JR Group. The different service areas of JR determine the scope of application of various transportation cards. Among them, the issue of the suica card issued by JR East Japan in 2001 is the earliest. The cumulative card issuance accounts for more than 50% of the total number of cards issued in Japan, and the card development is the most mature, and most of the subsequent issued traffic cards need to be interoperable with sucia in a certain area, the main body of the main traffic card, the issuance time and the main application. The regions are as follows:
Table 2-2 Card Distribution Overview
3. Japanese transportation card features
3.1 Decentralized business model of privatization of operating entities
The administrative management mode of the main body of transportation card operation in the world is mainly divided into three modes: integration, unitaryization and decentralization. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. The integrated model of Singapore â€œE-Tongkaâ€ is a typical case [16,17]. E-Tong Card Co., Ltd. is directly under the Singapore Land Transport Authority. Its business in the transportation card field is shared by the operating entities, and the rest of the comprehensive business is from the transportation industry. The government management department is responsible. This model is conducive to the management and provision of standardized services, and enhances the overall economic benefits. However, there are many coordination units and businesses for the competent departments, and the requirements for the management entities are high. With the transportation card of the Netherlands and Hong Kong as the typical unified mode [18-20], the whole traffic chain business is packaged into a whole. Tongka Company is jointly established and managed by the main operators of the main traffic chain, which is conducive to providing standardized services and The full coverage of the transportation chain is expanding rapidly and the scale effect is obvious. However, the willingness of the national railway, rail transit and other units to jointly manage and establish a joint venture is not strong. In Japan, China and other typical decentralization models, the main body of each traffic field issues a card, strictly dividing the area and boundary of each mode of transportation, although it is conducive to the independent measurement and control of their own specialized management and cost, but the management subject and There are many interfaces, the supervision and coordination is difficult, and the standards are different, which is not conducive to interoperability and provide integrated services, which is not conducive to the full coverage of the traffic chain. This is also the problem of the current domestic traffic card interconnection. The main body of Japan's transportation card implementation implements the private economy. After decentralized business model, it still realizes interoperability. This has a certain relationship with its predecessor from the transformation of state-owned railways. The integrated operation mode of state-owned railways has laid the foundation for the cooperation of JR companies.
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